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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Oud disambiguation.
- Gnoli - Agathias and the date of Zoroaster - Transoxiana Eran ud Aneran;
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The oud plectrum, called a risha in Arabic and a mezrap in Turkish. Egyptian lute players with long-necked lutes. Fresco from the tomb of Nebamun, a nobleman in the 18th Dynasty of Ancient Egypt c. Hellenistic banquet scene from the 1st century AD, Hadda , Gandhara. Short-necked, 2-string lute held by player, far right. Iran, 11th or 12th century a. Earthenware statue of a musician playing a short-necked, lute-style instrument. It equates to the measured length between the tip of the thumb and the tip of the auricular finger when stretched flat and in opposite directions.
The shibr otherwise measures 12 fingers Oxford Dictionaries - English. Retrieved 3 October American Lutherie 94, Richard Jean , The archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East. It is the principal instrument of the Arab world, Somalia and Djibouti, and is of secondary importance in Turkey ut, a spelling used in the past but now superseded by ud , Iran, Armenia and Azerbaijan ud.
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In eastern Africa it is known as udi; in recent decades it has also appeared in Mauritania and Tajikistan. The History of Musical Instruments. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1: A Musician's Return to Music. A History of the Lute from Antiquity to the Renaissance.
The Archaeomusicology of the Ancient Near East. The long-necked lute would have stemmed from the bow-harp and eventually became the tunbur; and the fat-bodied smaller lute would have evolved into the modern Oud Thus the lute not only dates but also locates the transition from musical protoliteracy to musical literacy The long-necked lute in the OED is orthographed as tambura; tambora, tamera, tumboora; tambur a and tanpoora.
The Greeks called it pandura; panduros; phanduros; panduris or pandurion. The Latin is pandura. It is attested as a Nubian instrument in the third century BC. The earliest literary allusion to lutes in Greece comes from Anaxilas in his play The Lyre-maker as 'trichordos' According to Pollux, the trichordon sic was Assyrian and they gave it the name pandoura These instruments survive today in the form of the various Arabian tunbar Retrieved March 25, The Cleveland Museum of Art.
Scheindlin, Michael Anthony Sells eds. For him the evidence produced by the Byzantine historian is particularly important, as it allegedly proves that the Persians of the sixth century: He believes that his conclusion, which he based on his interpretation of passage II However, all of these conclusions are baseless.
The translation of Agathias' Histories that J. Frendo published in 51 without doubt imposes itself as authoritative, based as it is on the critical edition of R. However, to take it alone, or any other translation, as a basis, without making any thorough analysis of the sources, Greek or Oriental, cannot suffice to solve the often difficult problems related to the encounter between Persia and Byzantium.
In addressing the topics treated herein we have for some time been able to make use of the excellent support represented by Averil Cameron's detailed studies of the Byzantine historian 53 , both on his sources 54 , and above all on Agathias himself and Sassanian history They should not be neglected. Gnoli, The idea of Iran. An essay on its origin , Rome , p. Scritti in onore di Giuseppe Morelli , Bologna , pp.
Old and Middle Iranian studies , ed. Sims-Williams, Wiesbaden , pp. Vajifdar, Whiteleaf, Surrey , pp. Dissent and consensus on the Gathas. Shaked, Scripture and exegesis in Zoroastrianism , in Homer, the Bible, and beyond. Literary and religious canons in the ancient world , ed.
Stroumsa, Leiden-Boston , pp. Gnoli, Zoroaster in history , e di J. Russell, The place and time of Zarathushtra , in A Zoroastrian tapestry. Art, religion and culture , ed. Mistree, Usmanpura Ahmedabad - Middletown, N.
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The Histories , transl. The passage is incorrectly cited as II Papers in honor of Professor Ehsan Yarshater , Leiden , pp. Frendo see note 16 , pp. For the first passage of the book IV, Frendo see note D 11 and, partially, on p.
Special thanks go out to friend-of-the-site Norbert for his role in the development of this chart. To determine the age of a predigit serial number Canon lens bearing a date code.
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Until phasing out the practice starting in , Canon included a date code beside the rear lens element of many but not all lenses note that some manufactured lenses retain the date code. The date code as seen below is in the form of " UR ". This code is also present on some other Canon products including camera bodies. The first letter, "U" , indicates that the lens was made in Canon's Utsunomiya, Japan factory.
Prior to , this letter is moved to the last position of the date code. The second letter, "R" , is a year code that indicates the year of manufacture. Canon increments this letter each year starting with A in and prior to that, A in without the leading factory code. Here is a table to make things simple:. The first two numbers, "09" , is the month number the lens was manufactured in. The leading zero of the month code is sometimes omitted.